Famine Story

told by Kamshey Chamchang

 

Link to Tangsa Text

Link to Translation

Link to Analysis

Link to Audio file for this text

 

 

Text number

SDM13-20111101-06_SM_JVC_Kamshey_FamineStory

Name

Famine Story

Informant

Kamshey Chamchang, Nongtham village, Kharsang, Arunachal Pradhesh

Place

recorded at the house of Simon Rera, Phulbari, Jagun, Assam

Author

 

Languages

Chamchang variety of Tangsa (general name Kimsing)

Date of recording

1/11/2011

Other Transcriptions

 

Translation

Translated with the aid of Ninshom Sena

Publication details

-

Recording details

recorded simultaneously on JVC GY HM 100E camera with Røde microphone and on the Tascam HD P2. The latter file is named SDM13-20111101-08_SM_T_Kamshey_FamineStory.wav

Digitisation details

 

Recording length

7’29”

Sound file

SDM13-20111101-06_SM_JVC_Kamshey_FamineStory.mp4 and

SDM13-20111101-06_SM_JVC_Kamshey_FamineStory.wav

Name of this document

SDM13-20111101-06_SM_JVC_Kamshey_FamineStory.doc

Format of document

Word

Special fonts used

 

Other notes

Examples are marked up with separate fields – first line is ‘Example Tangsa’, 2nd line ‘Example Phonemic Tangsa’, 3rd line is ‘Example Gloss Tangsa’ and the translation line is ‘Example Translation Tangsa’

 

 

 


Tangsa Text

 


Translation

 


Analysis

 

 

1)

ikvrvka

man

na

ram

ngu-tvlv-ka

akha

nashiq

 

i³kərəka²

man²

na²

ram³

ŋu²-tələ-ka²

a¹kʰa³

na¹ʃiʔ

 

that

long ago

at

famine

say-cont3-that

thus

1pl.incl

 

 

maik se

raq

jam lai wa

phaq-siq-tvkai

vrvka

 

maik se¹

raʔ

ʒam²lai² βa²

pʰaʔ-siʔ-təkai³

ərəka²

 

human

ag

what

eat-eat-cont.1pl

this

 

 

ram

dong

raüta

tsam

jaq

ka

sham-kai

 

ram³

doŋ³

raɯ²-ta²

tsam¹

ʒaʔ

ka²

ʃam³-kai³

 

famine

come out

seq-link

rice

hand

that

work- pst.1pl

 

 

rvshat maq.

 

 

rəʃat maʔ

 

 

but

 

‘And long ago, there was what is called famine, what did we people eat, when there was famine, although we were doing our work in the fields.’

 

This means that even though work was done in the fields, still there was famine.

 

 

2)

ikvrvka

/

riirin

ram

ka

rvmak

jaq

sham-kai

 

i³kərəka²

/

rɤ¹rin¹

ram³

ka²

rəmak

ʒaʔ

ʃam³-kai³

 

that

/

drought

famine

that

aux-neg.3

hand

work- pst.1pl

 

 

tvkvrv ka

tsam

kvrvka

lap-mai-dea

 

 

tə-kərəka²

tsam¹

i³kərəka²

lap-mai³dɛə²

 

 

pst-that

rice

that

get-neg1pl.prt

 

‘So famine was due to drought, not due to laziness, we would do our work but still we would not get rice.’

 

0’36”

 

 

3)

ikvra

ningkhan

na

phaq-siq-tvkai

ikvraka

ümkha wa

 

i³kəra²

niŋ²kʰan²

na²

pʰaʔ-siʔ-təkai³

i³kərəka²

m²kʰa³ βa²

 

that

cause

at

eat-eat-cont.1pl

that

how

 

 

phaq sea

kvrvka

rum

wa

phanrau

siqkhun

 

pʰaʔ-sɛə²

kərəka²

rum¹

βa³

pʰan¹rau¹

siʔkʰun²

 

eat-eat.nmz

that

jungle

from

big wild yam

yam on vine

 

 

kvmaq

wak

na

jamlai  wa

chhi jang-tvkai

kvra.

 

 

kəmaʔ

βak

na²

ʒam²lai² βa²

ʨʰi²-ʒaŋ¹-təkai³

kəra²

 

 

as well as

field

in

what things

plant-press-cont1pl

that

 

 ‘And because of this what things would we plant in the field, as well as getting the phanrau siqkhun from the forest as every day eating?’

 

Notesː  phaq-siq-tvkai was translated as ‘eating on a day to day basis’

            asea is a nominal form. Discussed at nst-kim_20120306_06_SM_H4n_Yanger_Eating

 

            chhi plant a seedling

            jang means to put the seed of the rice into the hole that has been made by pressing down with a stick

 

 

4)

a

tvpe tvpa

ralanglang

se

maq

phaq

siq.

 

 

təpe² təpa¹

ra²laŋ²laŋ²

se¹

maq

pʰaʔ

siʔ

 

 

excl

survive

little bit

child

a.ag

eat

eat

 

‘And we would eat just a little bit to survive.’

 

Tvpa ‘to hang down’. The phrase tvpe tvpa means what we will eat just to survive, it is not enough but only just.

 

0’57”

 

 

5)

raüta

awü

kvrv kvka

ika jaq

aju

alü

 

raɯ²-ta²

a¹wɯ³

kərə kəka²

i³ka² ʒaʔ

a¹ʒu²

a¹lɯ³

 

seq-link

3sg-year

that

this

3sg-summer

3sg-winter

 

 

kvra

tong-wan.

 

 

kəra²

toŋ²-βan³

 

 

that

cover-cos

 

‘And in this way, in the year, it would be enough for the summer and winter.’

 

Tong is used to mean that there is enough to cover the needs for the year.

 

 

6)

maiq chok maiq raq

phan

ka

phaq-siq-mai.

 

 

maiʔ ʨok maiʔ raʔ

pʰan²

ka²

pʰaʔ-siʔ-mai³

 

 

things harmful to humans

type

that

eat-eat-neg.1pl

 

‘We would not eat the things that were harmful to humans.’

 

maiq chok maiq raq ‘things which are harmful for humans’

chok ‘poison’

 

 

7)

ikvrvka

jamlai laq wa

maiq

raq

phaq-siq-tvkai.

 

 

i³kərəka²

ʒam²lai² laʔ βa²

maiʔ

raʔ

pʰaʔ-siʔ-təkai³

 

 

that

what

person

ag

eat-eat-cont.1pl

 

‘And what things would we humans eat?’

 

1’10”

 

 

8)

ikvra

weashaü

nyiipjaq

man

kvrvka

tsi gok

khiq mo

 

i³kəra²

βɛ²ʃaɯ¹

ɲɤpʒaʔ

man²

kərəka²

tsi²gok

kʰiʔmo²

 

that

curry

edible leaf

also

that

thorny leaf

bitter leaf

 

 

jaq

baitai

khoro

ikvra

kvrvmaq

kvkha

 

ʒaʔ

bai¹tai

kʰo²ro²

i³kəra²

kərəmaʔ

kəkʰa²

 

leaf

wet mushroom

dry mushroom

that

then

thus

 

 

h li

ashong

a¹chaq

maq

ja chang

kvrv kvka

 

ha²li²

a¹ʃoŋ²

a¹ʨaʔ

maʔ

ʒa²ʨaŋ¹

kərə kəka²

 

again

nomz-cook

nomz-light fire

a.ag

this is

that

 

 

siqkhun

likha

kvrv maq

kvrv kvlaq

wak jam

chu akham

 

siʔkʰun²

li²kʰa¹

kərə maʔ

kərə kəlaʔ

βakʒam²

ʨu²a¹kʰam²

 

long yam

round yam

and

that

field

euph

 

 

rum

wa

rit-tvkai

kvrv kvka

phan raü

siq khun

 

rum¹

βa³

rit-təkai³

kərə kəka²

pʰan¹rau¹

siʔkʰun²

 

jungle

from

search-cont.1pl

that

big wild yam

yam on vine

 

 

kvrv maq

siq chhi

ikvrv kvka

raüta

tsam

maq

 

kərə maʔ

siʔʨʰi²

i³kərə kəka²

raɯ²-ta²

tsam¹

maʔ

 

and

small yam

that

seq-link

rice

a.ag

 

 

wong

rai

ka

ahü.

 

 

βoŋ²

rai²

ka²

a¹-hɯ¹

 

 

husked rice

grain

that

neg. have

 

‘And there was also curries, and tsigok, khiqmo, and wet and dry mushrooms, were cooked on a fire and eaten, whereas the wild long and round yams which we would search for in the jungle and field, these were found and eaten but as for rice, there was not one grain of husked rice.’

 

The word washaü nyiipjaq is a compound that is meaning ‘curries’

The tsigok cannot be eaten alone; it needs to be mixed with other things to make taste. It is a kind of leaf with small thorns (Ass. mejenga pat). Rev. Yanger said of it that “If we eat it, it seems like something is walking in our mouth.”

The khiqmo is the size of a person’s hand

The baitai mushroom is shaped like an ear

The khoro is a very small mushroom

 

1’46”

 

 

9)

tsam

ka

a tso

ki

raü

svna

kvrv

...

 

tsam¹

ka²

a¹tso²

ki¹

raɯ²

səna²

kərə

...

 

rice

that

3sg-ill formed grain

go

seq

then

that

...

 

 

ikvra

shong

nyung

kvrv raq

saü

ase

maq

ka

 

i³kəra²

ʃoŋ²

ɲuŋ¹

kəre-raʔ

saɯ¹

a¹se¹

maʔ

ka²

 

that

cook

mother

that-ag

gr.ch

3sg-child

a.ag

that

 

 

hea hea

tvphaq-sea-chong.

 

 

hɛə³ hɛə³

tə-pʰaʔ-sɛə²-ʨaŋ¹

 

 

nicely

caus-eat-do

 

‘And if the grain is ill-formed, still the mother (has to manage) to cook nice foods for the children and grandchildren to eat.’

 

Notesː  It should be atso rvki raütaatso rvki’, illformed grain’

            Atso means that because there was no water, the grains were improperly formed.

            This refers to the way that the mother will cook the jungle foods in time of poor harvest

 

 

10)

a chhuq

chhuq

jaq

man

achhuq

sii

anai

 

a¹-ʨʰuʔ

ʨʰuʔ

ʒaʔ

man²

a¹-ʨʰuʔ

sɤ³

a¹-nai²

 

3sg-one

one

there

also

3sg-one

equal

3sg-two

 

 

chaq

raü

anai

sii.

 

 

ʨaʔ

raɯ²

a¹-nai²

sɤ³

 

 

equal

seq

3sg-two

equal

 

‘If (they have) one to one, then it would be equal one for all, if it were two it would also be two.’

 

This means that each child will get an equal amount; there was no partiality.

 

1’57”

 

 

11)

ika

raüta

tvkham nyam

kuq

raüta

ikvra

 

i³ka²

raɯ²-ta²

təkʰam² ɲam²

kuʔ

raɯ²-ta²

i³kəra²

 

that

seq-link

distribute equally

give

seq-link

that

 

 

phaq-siq.

 

 

pʰaʔ-siʔ

 

 

eat-eat

 

‘And after distributing equally, then they would eat.’

 

 

12)

ikvmaq

ira

chhiiwi

chhiiwi

kvra

lum

ka

 

i³kəmaʔ

i³ra²

ʨʰi²βi²

ʨʰi²βi²

kəra²

lum²

ka²

 

and

then

wild plant

wild plant

that

cook

that

 

 

ha hea.

 

 

ha³ hɛ³

 

 

very difficult

 

‘And then as for chhiiwi, it was very difficult to cook.

 

The chhiiwi is a fruit bearing plant that people only eat if there is nothing else to eat. It takes many hours to cook. It comes from the forest and it is a kind of fern, which is cut down and from deep inside a white portion is removed, fermented with good quality ash then maybe one week after it has to be taken in a basket and put in a flowing stream overnight so that all the poison is taken away. After that a white pulp comes out and that can be dried, pounded and powdered or it can be cooked. In the 1950s because of a bamboo flowering all the rats came out and ate the crops, so Rev. Yanger had to eat it (although his family did have enough to get through that famine).

 

2’08”

 

 

13)

ikvrv kvka

tapkhu

maq

lum.

 

 

i³kərə kəka²

tapkʰu²

maʔ

lum²

 

 

that

ash

a.ag

cook

 

‘And for this reason it is cooked by ashes.’

 

2’12”

 

 

14)

soq

raüta

tapkhu

maq

lum

raüta

she

 

soʔ

raɯ²-ta²

tapkʰu²

maʔ

lum²

raɯ²-ta²

ʃe²

 

peel

seq-link

ash

a.ag

cook

seq-link

conf

 

 

kvmaq

jii

na

chin

ki.

 

 

kəmaʔ

jɤ²

na²

ʨin²

ki¹

 

 

as well as

river

at

soak

go

 

‘After peeling the skin of the chhiiwi, having cooked it by ashes, it was kept in the river.’

 

Noteː   It would be kept immersed in river water for two days.

 

 

15)

kvrv maq

bitchi

kera

phaq-mai.

 

 

kərəmaʔ

bitʨi²

kəra²

pʰaʔ-mai³

 

 

then

big fruit

that

eat-neg.1pl

 

‘Apart from that, we did not eat the bitchi.’

 

Bitchi is a kind of poisonous tree. Its fruit is round shape and the leaf is good for poisoning fish. It grows in the jungle

 

 

16)

hilii

ka

phaq-tvkai.

 

 

hi³lɤ²

ka²

pʰaʔ-təkai³

 

 

big bean

that

eat-cont.1pl

 

‘We would eat the hilii.’

 

The hilii is the fruit of a big creeper (gila in Cholim Tangsa)

 

 

17)

hilii

kvman

kvrv kvka

/

kvmaq

wa

na

shu

 

hi³lɤ²

kə-man²

kərə kəka²

/

kəmaʔ

βa¹

na²

ʃu¹

 

big bean

that-also

that

/

as well as

fire

in

bake

 

 

raüta

akha

kham

ke

tvke

raüta

lum

 

raɯ²-ta²

a¹kʰa²

kʰam²

ke²

tə-ke²

raɯ²-ta²

lum²

 

seq-link

thus

water

hot

caus-hot

seq-link

cook

 

 

raüta

tapkhu

maq

phong

raüta

kvrvka

jii

na

 

raɯ²-ta²

tapkʰu²

maʔ

pʰoŋ³

raɯ²-ta²

kərəka²

ʒɤ²

na²

 

seq-link

ash

a.ag

cover

seq-link

that

river

at

 

 

wa nai

wa tsiim

ika

chin

ki.

 

 

βa²nai²

βa²tsɤm³

i³ka²

ʨin²

ki¹

 

 

night-two

night-three

that

dip

go

 

‘And the hilii, after baking it in the fire, like this, having made it hot, having cooked it, having covered it with ashes, it would be dipped in the river water for two or three nights.’

 

2’42”

 

 

18)

chin

ki

raüta

she

kham

sii rai

she

 

ʨin²

ki¹

raɯ²-ta²

ʃe²

kʰam²

sɤ³rai³

ʃe²

 

dip

go

seq-link

conf

water

finish

seq

 

 

sii-to

ngu

kvjaq

she

a

jang

shi shi

 

sɤ³-to³

ŋu²

kəʒaʔ

ʃe²

ʒaŋ¹

ʃi¹- ʃi¹

 

finish-pst.3

say

there

conf

hesit

times

one.redupl

 

 

akoq

phaq.

 

 

a¹koʔ

pʰaʔ

 

 

fry

eat

 

‘After dipping it, and when the water is finished, after indeed finishing it (as it is said), then sometimes we would fry and eat it.’

 

2’52”

 

 

19)

ka

weashaü

maq

ja chang

kata

kvra

hilii

 

ka²

βɛ²ʃaɯ¹

maʔ

ʒa² ʨaŋ¹

ka²-ta²

kəra²

hi³lɤ²

 

that

curry

a.ag

must be

that-link

that

big bean

 

 

kvrvka.

 

 

kərəka²

 

 

that

 

‘(All this is done) so that it must be like a curry, that big bean.’

 

 

20)

hea hea

ha li

pitsi

ka

...

pitsi

ka

 

hɛə³ hɛə³

ha²li²

pi¹tsi¹

ka²

...

pi¹tsi¹

ka²

 

nicely

again

type of fruit

that

...

type of fruit

that

 

 

man

phaq-tvkai.

 

 

man²

pʰaʔ-təkai³

 

 

also

eat-cont.1pl

 

‘And again nicely, we would eat the pitsi.’

 

 

21)

aphaq

asea

phan

maiq

nashiq

maiq

se

 

a¹-phoʔ

a¹-sɛə²

pʰan²

maiʔ

na¹ʃiʔ

maiʔ

se¹

 

nomz –eat

nomz –eat. nomz

type

person

1pl.incl

person

child

 

 

ara

choq

rv-mai

phan

kvrvka

nyung

we

 

a¹ra²

ʨoʔ

rə-mai³

pʰan²

kərəka²

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

 

that

harmful

aux-neg.1pl

type

that

mother

father

 

 

pat

na

ka

rvman

song aram

ka

ram

hea.

 

 

pat

na²

ka²

rə-man²

soŋ² a¹ram³

ka²

ram³

hɛə³

 

 

time

at

that

aux-then

famine

that

famine

very

 

‘And as for the edible things, we people would not eat harmful things, even when in ancestors time there used to be severe famine.’

 

3’07”

 

22)

rvshat maq

ka

maiq

se

kvrvka

achok

 

rəʃat maʔ

ka²

maiʔ

se¹

kərəka²

a¹ʨok

 

but

that

human

child

that

nomz-harmful

 

 

araq

chang

phan

phaq

siq

raü

jaka

maiq

 

a¹raʔ

ʨaŋ¹

pʰan²

pʰaʔ

siʔ

raɯ²

ʒa²-ka²

maiʔ

 

euph

be

type

eat

eat

seq

if-that

human

 

 

kvrvka

hong-wan-mak.

 

 

kərəka²

hoŋ³-βan³-mak

 

 

that

fulfil-cos-neg.3

 

‘But the humans if we eat the harmful things, for the humans it is not possible.’

 

 

23)

ikvra

ningkhan

na

sap-laita

rit-laita

ika

 

i³kəra²

niŋ²kʰan²

na²

sap-lai²ta²

rit-lai²ta²

i³ka²

 

that

cause

at

know-adv

know-adv

that

 

 

sap-laita

ikvra

phan

ika

phaq

sea

kvrv

 

sap-lai²ta²

i³kəra²

pʰan²

i³ka²

pʰaʔ

sɛə²

kərə

 

know-adv

that

type

that

eat

eat.nomz

that

 

 

raüta

/

kvrvka

ram

rawii

ka

kv kha

raüta

 

raɯ²-ta²

/

kərəka²

ram³

ra²βɤ³

ka²

kəkʰa³

raɯ²-ta²

 

seq-link

/

that

famine

sky-year

that

thus

seq-link

 

 

chhun-wan-taq.

 

 

ʨʰun²-βan³-taʔ

 

 

alive, survive

 

‘And due to this, by knowingly seeking out things to eat, in the year of that famine, they stayed alive.’

 

sap ‘know’

laita ‘after’. This may be some kind of adverbialiser

In other words because they knew what was poisonous and what was not, they were able to live.

 

3’25”

 

 

24)

mang rap

mang rii

kvrvka

ümchhaü

natsam

 

maŋ²rap

maŋ²rɤ²

kərəka²

m²ʨʰaɯ¹

na¹tsam²

 

everywhere

euph

that

now

1pl

 

 

maiq

ümchu wa

thung tii-tvkai

ara

ikvra

ram

 

maiʔ

m²ʨu² βa²

tʰuŋ¹ tɤ¹-təkai³

a¹ra²

i³kəra²

ram³

 

human

how many

gather-cont.1pl

here

that

famine

 

 

raq

chhi-mak

ram

sap-mak

maiq

se

 

raʔ

ʨʰi¹-mak

ram³

sap-mak

maiʔ

se¹

 

euph

see- neg.3

famine

know- neg.3

human

child

 

 

ka

ju

man

ahü

mungkang

na

ka

 

ka²

ʒu²

man²

a¹-hɯ¹

muŋ²kaŋ³

na²

ka²

 

that

who

also

neg. have

world

at

that

 

 

ram

dong-to.

 

 

ram³

doŋ²-to³

 

 

famine

come out-pst

 

‘Now everywhere, however many of we people gather together, there is nobody in this world who does not see and does not know famine, and thus famine occurs.’

 

mang ‘country’

mangrap mangrii ‘all the tribes of people, the people of all the countries’

 

3’39”

 

 

25)

ikvra

ningkhan

na

phaq

sea

kham

nyang

 

i³kəra²

niŋ²kʰan²

na²

pʰaʔ

siʔ

kʰam²

ɲaŋ²

 

that

cause

at

eat

eat

water

drink

 

 

kvrvka

ikvrvka

khu

akham

kvmin

kvrkva

kvtin cho

 

kərəka²

i³kərəka²

kʰu¹

a¹-kʰam²

kə-min²

kərəka²

kətin² ʨo¹

 

that

that

euph

3sg-water

that-also

that

at that time

 

 

kvra

kham

ke

nyang

ngu-ta

kvrvka

rvkhaq li

 

kəra²

kʰam²

ke¹

ɲaŋ²

ŋu²-ta²

kərəka²

rəkʰaʔ li²

 

that

water

warm

drink

say-link

that

correct

 

 

kv

khaq khaq

ka

.

nyung

we

pat

na.

 

 

kʰaʔ kʰaʔ

ka²

hɯ¹

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

pat

na²

 

 

that

timely

that

neg.have

mother

father

life

at

 

‘And because of that, as for eating and drinking, as for drinking also, at that time what we call hot water was not regularly drunk as a common practice, in our ancestors time.’

 

Notes:  Rev Yanger suggested that the phrase ‘hot water’ be transcribed as kham a-ke.

 

3’53”

 

 

26)

kham

kaiq

kvrv

kham

rai

ka

ahea.

 

 

kʰam²

kaiʔ

kərə

kʰam²

rai²

ka²

a¹hɛə³

 

 

water

cold

that

water

river

that

nomz-good

 

‘As for cold water, the rivers were good.’

 

The phrase kham rai is used for the drinking place where people would go in order to get drinking water.

 

 

27)

ikvra

...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i³kəra²

...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that

...

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘And that ...’

 

This line could not be clearly made out

 

4’01”

 

 

28)

nashiq

ikvra

phaq

sea

kham

nyang

kvra

 

na¹ʃiʔ

i³kəra²

pʰaʔ

sɛə²

kʰam²

ɲaŋ²

kəra²

 

1pl.incl

that

eat

eat.nomz

water

drink

that

 

 

ümchaü

maiq

ikvra

jam nang

ngu

raü-la

khu

 

m²ʨaɯ¹

maiʔ

i³kəra²

ʒam² naŋ³

ɲu²

raɯ²-la²

kʰu¹

 

now

human

that

example

say

seq- sub

euph

 

 

ke

kham

ke

ngu

kvmaq

khiqwin

wiiti

 

ke¹

kʰam²

ke¹

ŋu²

kəmaʔ

kʰiʔβin³

wɤ²ti³

 

hot

water

hot

say

that-a.ag

bowl

euph

 

 

ngu

raü

min

kvrvka

nashiq

kvraq

pat

na

 

ŋu²

raɯ²

min²

kərəka²

na¹ʃiʔ

kəraʔ

pat

na²

 

say

seq

also

that

1pl.incl

that-ag

lifetime

at

 

 

alap

alu

kvrv maq

ikvrv

nyung

we

pat

 

a¹lap

a¹lu¹

kərə-maʔ

i³kərə

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

pat

 

nomz-get

nomz-get

that-a.ag

that

mother

father

lifetime

 

 

na

kvrvka

kvtin cho

song aram

choji

kvrv kvka

 

na²

kərəka²

kətin² ʨo¹

soŋ² a¹ram³

ʨo²ʒi²

kərə kəka²

 

at

that

at that time

famine

famine time

that

 

 

pin

kv-min

wii

pin

li

kvrvmaq

lak kong

 

pin²

kə-min²

wɤ¹

pin²

li²

kərə-maʔ

lak.koŋ³

 

plate

that-also

bamboo

plate

only

that-a.ag

spoon

 

 

kvmin

wii

lak kong

kvrvmaq

khiq win

kvrvka

wii

 

kə-min²

wɤ¹

lak.koŋ³

kərə-maʔ

kʰiʔβin³

kərəka²

wɤ¹

 

that-also

bamboo

spoon

that-a.ag

bowl

that

bamboo

 

 

khaqtu

kvnang ka

khaqtu

wii

khaqtu

hai-kai

ka

 

kʰaʔtu³

kənaŋ² ka²

kʰaʔtu³

wɤ¹

kʰaʔtu³

hai²-kai³

ka²

 

bowl

that

bowl

bamboo

bowl

make-pst. 1pl

that

 

 

ikvjah

saü

ase

ma

tvphaq

sea

min

 

i³kəʒaʔ

saɯ¹

a¹se¹

ma³

tə-pʰaʔ

sɛə²

min²

 

there

gr.ch

3sg-child

for

caus-eat

eat.nomz

also

 

 

ikvrvka.

 

 

i³kərəka²

 

 

that

 

‘And as for what we are eating now, (although) we people for example in this our lifetime, we get hot water in what we call bowls and cups, in our parents lifetime there was famine and want and there were only bamboo plates and bamboo spoons and other implements and bowls that they we would make an these were used for feeding the children and grandchildren.’

 

Khuke khamke ‘hot water’

Jam nang ngu raü la ‘for example’

Khaqtu is around 5 inches for curries, kok is smaller and used for drinking and the longer one is called khap for alcohol, which is 10 inches to one foot long.

 

It is definitely tvphaq sea ma ‘to feed the children with’

 

4’49”

 

 

 

29)

mvren mra

raüta

akhvlii akhvlii

ashi

maq

rvta

 

məren² mra¹

raɯ²-ta²

a¹kʰəlɤ² a¹kʰəlɤ²

a¹ʃi¹

maʔ

rə-ta²

 

equal

seq-link

like this.redupl

one

a.ag

aux-link

 

 

ashi

anyung

nai

awe

kvrvka

tsapkop

raüta

 

a¹ʃi¹

a¹ɲuŋ¹

nai³

a¹βe¹

kərəka²

tsapkop

raɯ²-ta²

 

one

3sg-mother

two

3sg-father

that

faithfully

seq-link

 

 

tvphaq siq

raüta

ikha

tin khan

nashiq

ikha

 

tə-pʰaʔ-si?

raɯ²-ta²

i¹kʰa³

tin²kʰan²

na¹ʃiʔ

i¹kʰa³

 

caus-eat-eat

seq-link

thus

that much

1pl.incl

thus

 

 

shi

shong

nga-wan

raüta

song aram

ngu

raüta

 

ʃi¹

ʃoŋ²

ŋa³-βan³

raɯ²-ta²

a¹ram³

ŋu²

raɯ²-ta²

 

one

live

sit-cos

seq-link

famine

say

seq-link

 

 

üm chaü

na

saüli

tvma-hai

min

kvrvka

maih chok

 

m²ʨʰaɯ¹

na²

saɯ²li²

təma²-hai³

min²

kərəka²

maiʔ ʨok

 

now

at

until

think-fut.1pl

also

that

person-poison

 

 

maiq rah

phan

kvrvka

phaq-sea-chang-rvmak.

 

 

maiʔ raʔ

pʰan²

kərəka²

pʰaʔ-siʔ-ʨaŋ¹-rə-mak

 

 

person-euph

type

that

eat-eat-be-aux-neg.3

 

‘And equally, in this way, from one to another, our parents faithfully did this, giving us so much food to eat, for our living, so that now if we think about that famine, poisonous foods were not taken.’

 

Notesː This line means that “our parents and ancestors faithfully fed and cared for us.

            Ashi maq rvta ashi ‘from one to another’

            saüli tvma hai min ‘to think about how the parents managed in the famine

 

chang¹ ‘bed’

chang² ‘rhino’

 

5’11”

 

 

30)

hea hea

kvrvka

ngu-i

kvrvka

jam

phan

wa

hai

 

hɛə³ hɛə³

kərəka²

ŋu²-i³

kərəka²

ʒam²

pʰan²

βa²

hai²

 

good.redupl

that

say-hort

that

what

type

rl

euph

 

 

awong

she

lap-lo

kvmaq

jam

phan

raü

min

 

a¹βoŋ²

ʃe²

lap-lo³

kə-maʔ

ʒam²

pʰan²

raɯ²

min²

 

grain

conf

get-pst.3

that-a.ag

what

type

seq

also

 

 

kvrvka

nashiq

raq

ahe-atse-lai-tv-she

phaq

 

kərəka²

na¹ʃiʔ

raʔ

a¹-he³-a¹tse¹-lai³-tə-ʃe²

pʰaʔ

 

that

1pl.incl

ag

nomz-wash-nomz-euph1pl-link?-conf

eat

 

 

sea

ikvra

ara

kvla

ka

wong

thap-chang

 

sɛə²

i³kəra²

a¹ra²

kəla²

ka²

βoŋ²

tʰap-ʨaŋ¹

 

eat.nomz

that

this

emph

that

grain

measure-be

 

 

kvmin

kvra

wong

thü-chang

dong dii

kvrvka

 

kə-min²

kəra²

βoŋ²

tʰɯ³ʨaŋ¹

doŋ²dɤ²

kərəka²

 

that-also

that

grain

put in-be

must

that

 

 

si-ta

hii

wong

thü-chang

ngu-tv-ka

 

si¹-ta²

hɤ¹-ta²

βoŋ²

tʰɯ³ʨaŋ¹

ŋu²-tə-ka²

 

have-link

neg. have-link

grain

put in-be

say-link-that

 

 

wong

chü

kham

chü

kaü

raüta

ikvjvka

 

βoŋ²

ʨɯ²

kʰam²

ʨɯ²

kaɯ²

raɯ²-ta²

i³kə-ʒe-ka²

 

grain

container

water

container

clf

seq-link

that-if-that

 

 

ahap

rv raü

hap

raüta

koti

kvra

 

a¹hap

rə-raɯ²

hap

raɯ²-ta²

ko²ti³

kəra²

 

lid

aux-seq

lid

seq-link

brass pot

that

 

 

tvda

raü

wong

hap

kvmaq

maih

 

tə-da³

raɯ²

βoŋ²

hap

kə-maʔ

maiʔ

 

caus-put on fire

seq

grain

lid

that-a.ag

person

 

 

apa

atsap

ahap

kvmaq

thap-saq

raüta

 

a¹pa²

a¹tsap

a¹hap

kə-maʔ

tʰap-saʔ

raɯ²-ta²

 

more

less

lid

that-a.ag

measure

seq-link

 

 

ikvrv

prak chang

kvmin-ka

tsoqlaq

ngu

 

i³kərə

prak-ʨaŋ¹

kə-min²-ka²

tsoʔlaʔ

ŋu²

 

that

stir-be

that-also-that

wide bamboo stirring stick

say

 

 

sin dea

ngu

ika

raüta

hea hea

 

sin²dɛə²

ŋu²

i³ka²

raɯ²-ta²

hɛə³ hɛə³

 

narrow bamboo stirring stick

say

that

seq-link

good.redupl

 

 

phea nyin

wiipin

pin shi

na

kvrvka

ase

 

pʰɛə²ɲin²

βɤ¹pin²

pin²-ʃi¹

na²

kərəka²

a¹-se¹

 

distribute

bamboo plate

clf-one

at

that

3sg-child

 

 

atsam

anai

ngu

raü

min

kvrvka

awe

 

a¹tsam²

a¹nai³

ŋu²

raɯ²

min²

kərəka²

a¹-βe¹

 

three

two

say

seq

also

that

3sg-father

 

 

rai

sea-ti

awe

anyung

rai

sea thi

 

rai³

sɛə²-ti²

a¹-βe¹

a¹-ɲuŋ¹

rai³

sɛə²-ti²

 

with

eat-ag. nomz

3sg-father

3sg-mother

with

eat-ag.nomz

 

 

anyung

ikha

phaq-siq

ikha maq

shong

nga wan

 

a¹-ɲuŋ¹

i³kʰa

pʰaʔ-siʔ-βan³

i³kʰa³-maʔ

ʃoŋ²

ŋa-βan³

 

3sg-mother

thus

eat-eat-cos

thus-a.ag

stay

sit- cos

 

 

maiq

se

ngu-tvlvka

ikha

ngu-ta

manphan

 

maiʔ

se¹

ŋu²- tələka²

i³kʰa

ŋu²-ta²

man²pʰan²

 

human

child

say-cont.3-that

thus

say-link

story

 

 

ka

üm chaü

na

saüli.

ikvrvka

tvma-kai-la,

 

ka²

m²ʨaɯ²

na²

saɯ²-li³

i³kərəka²

təma²-kai³-la³

 

that

now

at

reach-1pl

that

think-pst.1pl-1non.fin

 

 

nyung

we

manphan

kvrvka,

ajiq

ka

rvmak.

 

 

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

man²pʰan²

kərəka²

a¹-ʒiʔ

ka²

rə-mak

 

 

mother

father

story

that

nomz-wrong

that

aux-neg.3

 

‘Let us say it is good, that whatever kind of grain we get, we will wash it and doing like that, measuring out the rice also, whatever is there must be put into the big bamboo rice or water tube, and then should be closed up and with that lid on, will be measured according to how many or how few people there are put stirred in the brass pot with the bamboo stirring sticks tsoqlaq and sindea, and being nicely distributed to two or three children, those who are will eat with the father eat with him, and those who will eat with the mother eat with her, and like this we eat, and we people are staying like this, and that’s how the story is until now we have heard, and thinking like this, our parents story is not wrong.’

 

Jam phan wa ‘what kind of’. Here wa modifies the interrogative jam.

Hai awong ‘grain, husked rice’

Si taq hii taq ‘whatever is there’

Once the rice is closed up into the bamboo tube the rice will be measured according to the number of people present and then put into the brass pot for cooking

 

Thap saq – saq means ‘quickly’, maybe here it should be translated as properly

It should be atsam bvlai ‘three or four’

Tvma kai la, ‘we have heard this story now we analyse it and think th.at it is true.’ This phrase literally means ‘considering it, analysing it’

 

Sindeabamboo stirring stick, a narrow one for removing curry past or chutney from the bamboo tube in which it has been pounded

 

6’17”

 

 

31)

ahea

ngu-ta

tvma

kvrvka,

araka

ngu

 

a¹hɛə³

ŋu²-ta²

təma²-kai³

kərəka²

a¹rəka²

ŋu²

 

nomz-good

say-link

think-pst.1pl

that

that

say

 

 

hea-dea.

 

 

hɛə³-dɛə²

 

 

good.emph

 

‘And thinking that it is correct, he said, this is indeed good.’

 

 

32)

ikha

saü

wa

min

ikha

saü-tvlo.

 

 

i³kʰa³

saɯ²

βa²

min²

i³kʰa³

saɯ²-təlo³

 

 

thus

happen

rl

also

thus

happen-cont.3

 

‘And it happens in that way.’

 

 

33)

rvtvka

manphan

ikvrvka

nyung

we

pat

na

 

rə-təka²

man²pʰan²

i³kərəka²

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

pat²

na²

 

aux-that

story

that

mother

father

time

at

 

 

man phan

song aram

pat

na

ngu

wa.

 

 

man²pʰan²

soŋ² a¹ram³

pat²

na²

ŋu²

βa²

 

 

story

famine

time

at

say

rl

 

‘And this is the story our parents time, the story of the time of famine.’

 

6’28”

 

 

34)

hih

jong

mu

raüta

kvrvka

ngu

raü

jaq

 

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

mu²

rau²-ta²

kərəka²

ŋu²

raɯ²

ʒaʔ

 

earth

inside

shake

seq-link

that

say

seq

there

 

 

kvrvka

hih

jong

mu

ta

kvrv

wvka

 

kərəka²

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

mu²

ta²

kərə

βe-ka²

 

that

earth

inside

shake

link

that

from-that

 

 

song aram

kvra

dong

rai-mak-li

ngu

raü

 

soŋ² a¹ram³

kəra²

doŋ²

rai³-mak-li³

ŋu²

raɯ²

 

famine

that

come out

cause-neg-sub

say

seq

 

 

min

ahai

ka

asi.

 

 

min²

a¹hai²

ka²

a¹si¹

 

 

also

nomz-fear

that

nomz-have

 

‘And as for what are called earthquakes, a famine is not made to come out from earthquakes, yet the fear is still there.’

 

Hih jong mu ‘earthquake’

Because of the earthquake the famine also comes out

Dong rai mak li, ‘even though it does not come out frequently, yet the fear of famine or earthquake is there

 

6’43”

 

 

35)

ka

hih

jong

mu

ta

kvrvka

nyung

we

 

ka²

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

mu²

ta²

kərəka²

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

 

that

earth

inside

shake

link

that

mother

father

 

 

manphan

ka

ikha

ka

ümrii loq

chocho

wii

wa

 

man²pʰan²

ka²

i³kʰa³

ka²

m²rɤ²loʔ

ʨo² ʨo²

wɯ³

βa²

 

story

that

thus

that

how much

when

year

rl

 

 

hih

jong

mu

kvrv min

barap

kvrvka

/

ümchaü

 

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

mu²

kərə-min²

ba²rap

kərəka²

/

m²ʨʰaɯ¹

 

earth

inside

shake

that-also

everywhere

that

/

now

 

 

ngu

raü

min

kvrvka

hih

jong

mu

raq

 

ŋu²

raɯ²

min²

kərəka²

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

mu²

raʔ

 

say

seq

also

that

earth

inside

shake

ag

 

 

tvkho-to

lom-to,

lom-mak,

ngu-tvla

kvrvka

 

təkʰo²-to³

lom²-to³

lom²-mak

ŋu²-təla³

kərəka²

 

divide- pst.3

include-pst.3

include-neg.3

say-cont.3

that

 

 

rilung

thi-chang-li

ka.

 

 

ri²luŋ²

tʰi²-ʨaŋ¹-li²

ka²

 

 

life

measure-be-sub

that

 

‘And as for the earthquakes, in our parents story, from which year it happened, now also, if the earth quakes, it does so everywhere, whether the generations are divided or included or not, and in this way life is measured.’

 

To measure the generation, whether the person was alive or dead or not yet born, about the story.

Rilung thi chang li ka ‘to measure the life’

 

7’03”

 

 

36)

kvtin

cho

ka

nyung

we

re

pat

na

 

kətin³

ʨo²

ka²

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

re²

pat

na²

 

then

time

that

mother

father

pl

time

at

 

 

kvrvka

barap

ümchu

wa

kvrvka

hiq

shi

 

kərəka²

ba²rap

m²ʨu²

βa³

kərəka²

hiʔ

ʃi¹

 

that

everywhere

how much

from

that

earth

one

 

 

min

tam-mak.

 

 

min²

tam²-mak

 

 

also

leave aside-neg.3

 

‘At that time, in our ancestors time, everywhere (there was earthquake), so much that not even one village escaped it.’

 

 

37)

nok

shi

min

tam-mak

ka

hih

jong

 

nok

ʃi¹

min²

tam²-mak

ka²

hiʔ

ʒoŋ¹

 

people

one

also

leave aside-neg.3

that

earth

inside

 

 

mu

ngu

raüta.

 

 

mu²

ŋu²

rau²-ta²

 

 

shake

say

seq-link

 

‘And no one group of people escaped from the earthquake, it is said.’

 

 

38)

lam paq

kvrvka

phan

shi

arom

re

khvla

 

lam²-paʔ

kərəka²

pʰan²

ʃi¹

a¹-rom²

re²

kʰəla²

 

road-bind

that

type

one

nomz-join

pl

like that

 

 

rvta

man

nvka

lu

hea

khom-tvkai

ngu-ta

 

rəta²

man²

nə-ka²

lu¹

hɛə³

kʰom²-təkai³

ŋu²-ta²

 

aux-link

long ago

at-from

long

very

walk-cont.1pl

say-link

 

 

ikha

nyung

we

re

raq

chong raü

raüta

 

i¹kʰa³

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

re²

raʔ

ʨoŋ¹- raɯ²

raɯ²-ta²

 

thus

mother

father

pl

ag

tell- used to

seq-link

 

 

ikvra

tai-lala-ta

ikvra

manphan

ka

ikha kha

 

i³kəra²

tai¹-la³la³-ta²

i³kəra²

man²pʰan²

ka²

i¹kʰa³ kʰa³

 

this

hear-1sg.sub-link

this

story

that

thus

 

 

ngu-ta

phan-tvlo

nyung

we

re

raq.

 

 

ŋu²-ta²

pʰan²-təlo³

ɲuŋ¹

βe¹

re²

raʔ

 

 

say-link

tell-cont.3

mother

father

pl

ag

 

‘And they may have joined the routes together, because long ago we our ancestors would walk a very long route, they used to tell this way and I used to hear the story in this way, as told by our ancestors.’

 

Notesː  This means that our ancestors told us they used to walk a long way

The word lampah means that the road is shortened because of the earthquake

 

If it is he used to hear apaiq raq tai raü raü ta

We used to hear nashiq raq tai lai lai ta

You use to hear tai laü laü ta

You used to hear tai lan lan ta

 

Tai la ta ‘I have heard’

Tai la la ta ‘I used to hear, I have often heard’

 

 

39)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘’