MPI-PL Archive

DGSposs_Match
Materials and players: A game set consists of one A4-size chart and 15 plastic-coated cards. There are two sets, labelled (a) and (b). This game can be done with one player and one game leader, but it is better to play it with two players and game leader. Goal: The goal of this game is to complete the chart by assigning 5 cards to each of the three persons shown on the top of the paper. The cards represent the possessions that have to be matched to their possessors, while specifying the logical reasons for assigning a particular card to a particular person. Set-up: Three persons are involved in the Picture Matching Game; two participants and the game leader. The two participants are sitting next to each other, with the Game Leader (GL) in front of them. The camera shoots the two participants (1 and 2). It is not necessary to film the game leader (GL) and the game materials. The chart and the cards are placed on a table near the game leader, so that the game leader can handle them. The participants are able to see the chart and the cards, but are not able/not allowed to pick up the cards. Linguistic Target: This game mainly targets alienable possession, and will elicit third person reference. Since the initial focus is on the possessed items, this context is also suitable for eliciting “belong”-constructions (‘The bicyle belongs to the girl.’). These contrast with the ‘have’-constructions elicited in the other games (‘X has Y.’, focusing on the posssessor X). The conversations in this game are freer than in the first two games because the participant(s) has/have to express reasons for assigning possessed items to a person, and there may have to be some negotiation and re-ordering towards the end of the game. Therefore, the utterances/interactions in this game are expected to be richer and more varied, including a variety of possessive structures. Rules of the game: The Game Leader has the paper chart labelled (a) and the corresponding 15 plastic cards (from the set a) in from on him/her. The chart has pictures of 3 persons on it, and there are 5 empty squares under each person. The Game Leader has to fill these 15 empty squares with cards as directed by the participants 1 and 2. The stack of cards is put face down with 1a at the top, then 2a, 3a, and so on up to 15a at the bottom. The Game Leader picks up the first card (1a) from the pile and shows it to participant 1, who has to respond by saying to which person the thing depicted on the card belongs and why. The game leader then places card (1a) in one of the squares under the person as directed by the participant. The game leader does not need to say anything, s/he will just show the plastic cards and place them on the paper chart as directed. It is useful to explain the task to the participants before the game, by saying that the cards represent things that BELONG to one of the people on the paper chart, and that they have to decide WHO HAS WHAT and why. If the signs for BELONG, HAVE, etc are used in the explanation, this can cue in the participants correctly, otherwise they might just sign that a card is CONNECTED TO a person, without using a possessive structure. The participants have to add reasons for their choices in order to avoid very short answers (only naming the person) or simply pointing to the chart. After the card 1a has been placed on the chart, the game leader picks up card 2a and the sequence is repeated again. If there is only one participant, this participant talks about all the cards. If there are 2 participants, the game leader takes turns directing one card at each person and then switching to the next person, and so on through all the cards. Examples of what the participants are intended to say: “The helmet belongs to the girl because she already has the bicycle and needs the helmet with it.”, “This card belongs to the man because only men use guns, women do not have guns.”, “The dog is for the grandmother because she is old and likes the company of dogs.”. Although each card is directed at one of the participants, the game in fact works best as a cooperative game, that is, the person responsible for a particular card may ask the other person for help, or the other person may interrupt and give his/her own opinion. The participants are thus allowed, and even encouraged, to talk to each other during the game, in particular towards the end when it becomes difficult. All 15 squares on the chart have to be filled with cards. Note that each person on the sheet has to get exactly 5 cards, but cannot have more. Therefore, towards the end of the game there might be a card which fits best with one person on the chart, but all squares for this person are already filled. In this case, participants are allowed to swap pictures, as long as they give a good reason for doing so. At this stage, participants might discuss with each other what the best solution should be. Participants are free to discuss the placement of any card during the game at any time, e.g. if they not agree as to which picture belongs to which person. The cards are arranged in order from 1 to 15 so that some obvious and easy pictures come first, for example, gun to the man, toy to the child, etc. This is because the participants first need some practice with easy items until they “get the hang” of the game. Later on in the game, it becomes more difficult to assign objects to the persons and many objects have several possible solutions (e.g. book could go to any of the 3 persons). The difficult items are there to encourage longer utterances and interactions as the participants have to work on solving the problem. After all 15 cards from the (a) set have been completed, the game is repeated again with the (b) set. This may be done directly afterwards (especially if there was some confusion initially about how the game works), or set (b) may be done later on (especially if the participants had no problem understanding and doing the game and are becoming slightly bored with the activity).
DGSposs_Comp
Materials and players: This game is played by pairs of two participants. The materials consist of pairs of similar pictures different only in small details. There are four pairs of pictures in the game, that is, a total of eight pictures, roughly in A5 size. Goal: Participants have to jontly work out what the differences are between the two resembling pictures, while each participants can only see his/her own picture, but not the second picture. The participants have to find out the differences by talking about their respective pictures, and have to report the differences that they find to the game leader. Set-up: The set-up is similar to the DOCTOR-PATIENT GAME (see description there), except that there is an additional game leader sitting in front of the two participants facing them. Linguistic target: This game targets various types of possessed items (body parts, clothes, objects). In addition, it targets a number of structures not covered by any of the other games. One of these structures involves modified and quantified possessed items (e.g. a girl holding a long stick in one picture, but a short stick in the other picture, a table with two vases standing on it vs. a table with only one vase). Another important structure involves existential statements, both positive and negative (‘There is a fish./There are some fish.’ vs. ‘There is/are no fish.’). Rules of the game: All pictures are with the game leader. The game leader starts by giving one picture from a resembling pair to each of the participants. The pictures of each pair are very similar, but there are about 6-8 minor differences between the two pictures of each pair. Now participant 1 and 2 each have one picture to look at, but they are not able to see the picture of the other participant. They now have to figure out together what the differences between the pictures are, by talking about the pictures. There are no fixed rules about what to say. In some countries, this kind of game is well-known and is often included in activity books for children. If this is the case, the participants will know what kinds of differences to expect. If, however, this kind of game is not well-known to the participants, it is better to first give them a PAIR of two pictures to look at and let them find out the differences by looking at both pictures placed side by side, for practice. This will give them an idea as to the kinds of differences and the scale of detail that they should be looking for. After this practice, proceed with the actual game and give one picture of a pair to each participant. It is up to the oberver’s judgment whether the participants need a practice session or not. When one of the participants has recognized that there is a particular difference between the two pictures, s/he has to summarize this difference to the game leader, e.g.: “On my picture, the mother has brown hair, but on the other picture she has grey hair.” The game leader writes down a short note on a piece of paper to remember the difference, e.g. “hair colour: brown vs. grey”. The purpose of reporting the findings to a third person is to elicit longer continuous utterances., Materials and players: A game set consists of one A4-size chart and 15 plastic-coated cards. There are two sets, labelled (a) and (b). This game can be done with one player and one game leader, but it is better to play it with two players and game leader. Goal: The goal of this game is to complete the chart by assigning 5 cards to each of the three persons shown on the top of the paper. The cards represent the possessions that have to be matched to their possessors, while specifying the logical reasons for assigning a particular card to a particular person. Set-up: Three persons are involved in the Picture Matching Game; two participants and the game leader. The two participants are sitting next to each other, with the Game Leader (GL) in front of them. The camera shoots the two participants (1 and 2). It is not necessary to film the game leader (GL) and the game materials. The chart and the cards are placed on a table near the game leader, so that the game leader can handle them. The participants are able to see the chart and the cards, but are not able/not allowed to pick up the cards. Linguistic Target: This game mainly targets alienable possession, and will elicit third person reference. Since the initial focus is on the possessed items, this context is also suitable for eliciting “belong”-constructions (‘The bicyle belongs to the girl.’). These contrast with the ‘have’-constructions elicited in the other games (‘X has Y.’, focusing on the posssessor X). The conversations in this game are freer than in the first two games because the participant(s) has/have to express reasons for assigning possessed items to a person, and there may have to be some negotiation and re-ordering towards the end of the game. Therefore, the utterances/interactions in this game are expected to be richer and more varied, including a variety of possessive structures. Rules of the game: The Game Leader has the paper chart labelled (a) and the corresponding 15 plastic cards (from the set a) in from on him/her. The chart has pictures of 3 persons on it, and there are 5 empty squares under each person. The Game Leader has to fill these 15 empty squares with cards as directed by the participants 1 and 2. The stack of cards is put face down with 1a at the top, then 2a, 3a, and so on up to 15a at the bottom. The Game Leader picks up the first card (1a) from the pile and shows it to participant 1, who has to respond by saying to which person the thing depicted on the card belongs and why. The game leader then places card (1a) in one of the squares under the person as directed by the participant. The game leader does not need to say anything, s/he will just show the plastic cards and place them on the paper chart as directed. It is useful to explain the task to the participants before the game, by saying that the cards represent things that BELONG to one of the people on the paper chart, and that they have to decide WHO HAS WHAT and why. If the signs for BELONG, HAVE, etc are used in the explanation, this can cue in the participants correctly, otherwise they might just sign that a card is CONNECTED TO a person, without using a possessive structure. The participants have to add reasons for their choices in order to avoid very short answers (only naming the person) or simply pointing to the chart. After the card 1a has been placed on the chart, the game leader picks up card 2a and the sequence is repeated again. If there is only one participant, this participant talks about all the cards. If there are 2 participants, the game leader takes turns directing one card at each person and then switching to the next person, and so on through all the cards. Examples of what the participants are intended to say: “The helmet belongs to the girl because she already has the bicycle and needs the helmet with it.”, “This card belongs to the man because only men use guns, women do not have guns.”, “The dog is for the grandmother because she is old and likes the company of dogs.”. Although each card is directed at one of the participants, the game in fact works best as a cooperative game, that is, the person responsible for a particular card may ask the other person for help, or the other person may interrupt and give his/her own opinion. The participants are thus allowed, and even encouraged, to talk to each other during the game, in particular towards the end when it becomes difficult. All 15 squares on the chart have to be filled with cards. Note that each person on the sheet has to get exactly 5 cards, but cannot have more. Therefore, towards the end of the game there might be a card which fits best with one person on the chart, but all squares for this person are already filled. In this case, participants are allowed to swap pictures, as long as they give a good reason for doing so. At this stage, participants might discuss with each other what the best solution should be. Participants are free to discuss the placement of any card during the game at any time, e.g. if they not agree as to which picture belongs to which person. The cards are arranged in order from 1 to 15 so that some obvious and easy pictures come first, for example, gun to the man, toy to the child, etc. This is because the participants first need some practice with easy items until they “get the hang” of the game. Later on in the game, it becomes more difficult to assign objects to the persons and many objects have several possible solutions (e.g. book could go to any of the 3 persons). The difficult items are there to encourage longer utterances and interactions as the participants have to work on solving the problem. After all 15 cards from the (a) set have been completed, the game is repeated again with the (b) set. This may be done directly afterwards (especially if there was some confusion initially about how the game works), or set (b) may be done later on (especially if the participants had no problem understanding and doing the game and are becoming slightly bored with the activity).
DGSposs_DocPat
Materials and players: The game is for a pair of two players. For each round of the game, 3 plastic-coated cards and one A4-size chart are used. There are two rounds in the game. Each round of the game consists of 3 communication sequences, corresponding to the 3 cards. If additional charts and/or cards have been provided, they are spares. It is best to use a black colour pen to fill the chart. If the participants use a written language that could not be provided, the words on the chart and the cards may have to be translated first. It is also possible to change the illnesses and symptoms if other illnesses are more salient in the particular country. Goal: The goal of the game is for the doctor to find out what illness the patient is suffering from by checking off symptoms on a chart. The fold on the right of the chart can be opened to find out the illness from the pattern of black dots. Set-up: Two participants are sitting at a table next to each other, slightly diagonally so that they face each other as well as the camera, which is in the centre in front of them. The arrows roughly indicate the gaze direction. Linguistic target: This game targets body part possession (‘my head’), one of the core instances of inalienable possessio. There may or may not be predicative possession (‘have a headache’). Instead of posession proper, some languages use structures such as ‘head hurts’. The ‘weakness’ symptom is a control that is not expected to contain possessive structures (*‘my weakness’). Both first and second person reference are targeted. Rules of the game: Participant 1 plays the role of doctor, Participant 2 is the patient. The person in the role of the doctor should first be shown the chart and get instructions on how to complete the chart. The chart has to be folded so that the right-hand part is not visible. The visible part has the words for the symptoms on the far left, and three vertical columns of unfilled dots. Each column is for one game sequence, corresponding to the symptoms on one of the three cards that the patient has. The aim is for the doctor to colour in the dots for the correct symptoms and then open the folded part to match the dot pattern with the patterns on the right. This way the doctor can find out what the illness is and can inform the patient about it. The three pastic cards are face down in front of the patient, who starts by picking up one of the cards and looking at the list of symptoms. The doctor is not allowed to see what is on the card. When the patient has memorized the symptoms and put away the card, the doctor starts asking for his/her symptoms. It is not necessary to always go from top to down, the doctor is free to choose what to ask first. If the patients has a certain symptom, s/he responds by answering ‘yes’, and the doctor blackens the circle that is behind that symptom. If the patient has not got a specific symptom he responds by answering ‘no’, and the doctor goes on to the next symptom on his list. Even though the patient might know that there are no more symptoms on the card, the doctor still has to finish the whole chart. At the end of the sequence, when all dots have been either filled with black colour or left white, the doctor can check which illnesses the patient has by opening the folded paper and comparing the dot pattern to the patterns on the right. This diagnostic conversation is repeated 3 times for the 3 different sets of symptoms on the 3 cards. The order of the cards does not matter. The game is then repeated with reversed roles. The game sequences in summary: PLAYER 1 AS DOCTOR PLAYER 2 AS PATIENT set of symptoms 1 set of symptoms 2 set of symptoms 3 PLAYER 2 AS DOCTOR PLAYER 1 AS PATIENT set of symptoms 1 set of symptoms 2 set of symptoms 3 Final note: After a couple of sequences, both players may tend to reduce their utterances because they already know the context (e.g. HEADACHE? – head nod, EARS? – YES). If this happens, it is better to stop before roles are switched and first do one of the other games in between. After some other game activity, or after a pause, the game can be repeated with the reversed roles later on., Materials and players: The game is for a pair of two players. For each round of the game, 3 plastic-coated cards and one A4-size chart are used. There are two rounds in the game. Each round of the game consists of 3 communication sequences, corresponding to the 3 cards. If additional charts and/or cards have been provided, they are spares. It is best to use a black colour pen to fill the chart. If the participants use a written language that could not be provided, the words on the chart and the cards may have to be translated first. It is also possible to change the illnesses and symptoms if other illnesses are more salient in the particular country. Goal: The goal of the game is for the doctor to find out what illness the patient is suffering from by checking off symptoms on a chart. The fold on the right of the chart can be opened to find out the illness from the pattern of black dots. Set-up: Two participants are sitting at a table next to each other, slightly diagonally so that they face each other as well as the camera, which is in the centre in front of them. The arrows roughly indicate the gaze direction. Linguistic target: This game targets body part possession (‘my head’), one of the core instances of inalienable possessio. There may or may not be predicative possession (‘have a headache’). Instead of posession proper, some languages use structures such as ‘head hurts’. The ‘weakness’ symptom is a control that is not expected to contain possessive structures (*‘my weakness’). Both first and second person reference are targeted. Rules of the game: Participant 1 plays the role of doctor, Participant 2 is the patient. The person in the role of the doctor should first be shown the chart and get instructions on how to complete the chart. The chart has to be folded so that the right-hand part is not visible. The visible part has the words for the symptoms on the far left, and three vertical columns of unfilled dots. Each column is for one game sequence, corresponding to the symptoms on one of the three cards that the patient has. The aim is for the doctor to colour in the dots for the correct symptoms and then open the folded part to match the dot pattern with the patterns on the right. This way the doctor can find out what the illness is and can inform the patient about it. The three pastic cards are face down in front of the patient, who starts by picking up one of the cards and looking at the list of symptoms. The doctor is not allowed to see what is on the card. When the patient has memorized the symptoms and put away the card, the doctor starts asking for his/her symptoms. It is not necessary to always go from top to down, the doctor is free to choose what to ask first. If the patients has a certain symptom, s/he responds by answering ‘yes’, and the doctor blackens the circle that is behind that symptom. If the patient has not got a specific symptom he responds by answering ‘no’, and the doctor goes on to the next symptom on his list. Even though the patient might know that there are no more symptoms on the card, the doctor still has to finish the whole chart. At the end of the sequence, when all dots have been either filled with black colour or left white, the doctor can check which illnesses the patient has by opening the folded paper and comparing the dot pattern to the patterns on the right. This diagnostic conversation is repeated 3 times for the 3 different sets of symptoms on the 3 cards. The order of the cards does not matter. The game is then repeated with reversed roles. The game sequences in summary: PLAYER 1 AS DOCTOR PLAYER 2 AS PATIENT set of symptoms 1 set of symptoms 2 set of symptoms 3 PLAYER 2 AS DOCTOR PLAYER 1 AS PATIENT set of symptoms 1 set of symptoms 2 set of symptoms 3
DGSposs_FT01
Materials and players: The game consists of one A3-size paper with a family tree chart on it. A pair of two players is needed for each sequence of the game. Use a pencil and rubber to complete the chart, so that it can be cleared and used again, or make A3 copies of the chart. 4 charts are needed for the 4 rounds of the game. Goal: The goal of the game is for one of the players to get information about the other person’s family, so that s/he can complete the family tree for that person. It is preferable for the sake of the interest of the game that the players do not know each other’s families too well, but this is not absolutely necessary. Set-up: The two players sit next to each other at a table, slightly diagonal so that they are half facing each other. The camera should capture both players fully (as in the doctor-patient game, see the drawing there). Alternatively, players could sit opposite each other, looking at each other across the table, especially if there are two cameras available for filming. One player has the family chart in front of him/her on the table, ready to fill in symbols or words into the empty squares. The chart is out of reach for the second player, that is, s/he is not able to touch the chart or point directly at specific locations on the chart. It is not essential to have the chart itself on the video. Linguistic target: This game targets inalienable possession with kinship terms, as well as possessive pronouns (my parents, your sister, etc). The dialogue is expected to contain predicative possessive structures, as well as quantified possessum nominals (‘I have two sisters.’). As a side-effect, the game elicits the kinship terms themselves. First, second and third person forms are targeted. Rules of the game: The player with the chart has to find out about the other player’s family members by asking questions, preferably without too much pointing at the individual squares and locations on the chart (if they find it appropriate, observers may choose to say this explicitly, or to interfere when players use too much pointing instead of signing). The square with the cross is the target person, the rest of the chart follows the conventional family tree model. If participants find it easier, you may choose to add another symbol (e.g. two interlocked circles) to indicate who is married to whom. The players should first look at the chart and discuss it with the observers until they understand the chart and the task. They can fill the chart by adding the conventional symbols for ‘male’ and ‘female’ or, of these symbols are not used in their culture, write words into the squares. Note that it is not important whether there are any mistakes in the chart itself. The player with the chart is free to choose where s/he wants to start filling in the tree, e.g. by asking about the other person’s siblings, or marriage, or parents. The strategy may also depend on the age of the addressee, but this is not really important for the game. If additional squares are needed, they can be added by hand, starting with the squares that are in dotted lines. If families in one generationa re too large to fit n the paper, some members can be skipped. After completing the male and female family members on the chart, the first player has to choose three individuals from the chart and ask about their ages and professions, and add those to the chart. (Note: This may elicit multiple embedding such as ‘your father’s sister’s work’). The the roles are switched and the game is repeated with reversed roles. After this first round, the player who first had the chart resumes asking the questions again, this time about a third person who the addressee knows well, for example, a good friend. The game is repeated talking about this friend’s family. (Note: This elicits third person reference.). Then again the roles are switched, and the second person asks about the first person’s friend. The game sequences in summary: PLAYER A asking about the family of PLAYER B PLAYER B asking about the family of PLAYER A PLAYER A asking about the family of A FRIEND OF PLAYER B PLAYER B asking about the family of A FRIEND OF PLAYER A Final note: To keep the game interesting, it is possible to introduce new tasks in rounds 3 and 4. For example, make the players go up to down or down to up when filling the chart. Or to find out ages and professions, do not let them choose, but choose for them who they should ask about. Or tell them to ask other kinds of information about individuals on the chart.
DGSposs_FT02
Materials and players: The game consists of one A3-size paper with a family tree chart on it. A pair of two players is needed for each sequence of the game. Use a pencil and rubber to complete the chart, so that it can be cleared and used again, or make A3 copies of the chart. 4 charts are needed for the 4 rounds of the game. Goal: The goal of the game is for one of the players to get information about the other person’s family, so that s/he can complete the family tree for that person. It is preferable for the sake of the interest of the game that the players do not know each other’s families too well, but this is not absolutely necessary. Set-up: The two players sit next to each other at a table, slightly diagonal so that they are half facing each other. The camera should capture both players fully (as in the doctor-patient game, see the drawing there). Alternatively, players could sit opposite each other, looking at each other across the table, especially if there are two cameras available for filming. One player has the family chart in front of him/her on the table, ready to fill in symbols or words into the empty squares. The chart is out of reach for the second player, that is, s/he is not able to touch the chart or point directly at specific locations on the chart. It is not essential to have the chart itself on the video. Linguistic target: This game targets inalienable possession with kinship terms, as well as possessive pronouns (my parents, your sister, etc). The dialogue is expected to contain predicative possessive structures, as well as quantified possessum nominals (‘I have two sisters.’). As a side-effect, the game elicits the kinship terms themselves. First, second and third person forms are targeted. Rules of the game: The player with the chart has to find out about the other player’s family members by asking questions, preferably without too much pointing at the individual squares and locations on the chart (if they find it appropriate, observers may choose to say this explicitly, or to interfere when players use too much pointing instead of signing). The square with the cross is the target person, the rest of the chart follows the conventional family tree model. If participants find it easier, you may choose to add another symbol (e.g. two interlocked circles) to indicate who is married to whom. The players should first look at the chart and discuss it with the observers until they understand the chart and the task. They can fill the chart by adding the conventional symbols for ‘male’ and ‘female’ or, of these symbols are not used in their culture, write words into the squares. Note that it is not important whether there are any mistakes in the chart itself. The player with the chart is free to choose where s/he wants to start filling in the tree, e.g. by asking about the other person’s siblings, or marriage, or parents. The strategy may also depend on the age of the addressee, but this is not really important for the game. If additional squares are needed, they can be added by hand, starting with the squares that are in dotted lines. If families in one generationa re too large to fit n the paper, some members can be skipped. After completing the male and female family members on the chart, the first player has to choose three individuals from the chart and ask about their ages and professions, and add those to the chart. (Note: This may elicit multiple embedding such as ‘your father’s sister’s work’). The the roles are switched and the game is repeated with reversed roles. After this first round, the player who first had the chart resumes asking the questions again, this time about a third person who the addressee knows well, for example, a good friend. The game is repeated talking about this friend’s family. (Note: This elicits third person reference.). Then again the roles are switched, and the second person asks about the first person’s friend. The game sequences in summary: PLAYER A asking about the family of PLAYER B PLAYER B asking about the family of PLAYER A PLAYER A asking about the family of A FRIEND OF PLAYER B PLAYER B asking about the family of A FRIEND OF PLAYER A Final note: To keep the game interesting, it is possible to introduce new tasks in rounds 3 and 4. For example, make the players go up to down or down to up when filling the chart. Or to find out ages and professions, do not let them choose, but choose for them who they should ask about. Or tell them to ask other kinds of information about individuals on the chart., CR1: T and S see each other through binoculars; S runs from his building across the street into T's building and gets thrown out the door into a pile of garbage seconds later